Science in Ancient Egypt Mathematics and Medicine

Science in Ancient Egypt Mathematics and Medicine. The emergence of Egyptian mathematics Egyptian mathematics arose from the needs of office work and business. – presentation

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Presentation on theme: “Science in Ancient Egypt Mathematics and Medicine. The emergence of Egyptian mathematics Egyptian mathematics arose from the needs of office work and household.” — Transcript:

1 Science in Ancient Egypt Mathematics and Medicine

2 the Emergence of Egyptian mathematics Egyptian mathematics arose from the needs of office work and economic life. The Egyptians used the non-positional decimal counting system, which used special characters to indicate numbers 1, 10, 100, etc. Egyptian mathematics arose from the needs of office work and economic life. The Egyptians used the non-positional decimal counting system, which used special characters to indicate numbers 1, 10, 100, etc.

3 Operated only simple fractions with numerator 1. Operated only simple fractions with numerator 1. From the Middle Kingdom witnessed the repositories, which offer solutions. From the Middle Kingdom witnessed the repositories, which offer solutions. Most of the problems arose from practical needs. Most of the problems arose from practical needs.

4 Geometry In oblastyami the Egyptians knew the exact formula for area of rectangle, triangle and trapezoid. In geometry the Egyptians knew the exact formula for area of rectangle, triangle and trapezoid. The area of an arbitrary quadrilateral with sides a, b, c, d were calculated approximately as the Area of an arbitrary quadrilateral with sides a, b, c, d were calculated approximately as the Area of a circle was calculated, assuming the Area of a circle was calculated, assuming = 3,1605 (error less than 1 %). The Egyptians knew the exact formula for the volume of a parallelepiped and cylindrical bodies different, but also the pyramid and truncated pyramid. May we have a regular truncated pyramid with the base side of the bottom a, top b and height h; then the volume was calculated according to the original, but the exact formula: the Egyptians knew the exact formula for the volume of a parallelepiped and cylindrical bodies different, but also the pyramid and truncated pyramid. May we have a regular truncated pyramid with the base side of the bottom a, top b and height h; then the volume was calculated according to the original, but the exact formula:

5 How do we know about medicine Etc.Egypt for the First time about the existence of medical treatises in Ancient Egypt it is told in record on the wall of the tomb of Wash-Ptah – the chief architect of the king V dynasty Neferure-RA (XXV century BC). In the same inscription gives the clinical picture of sudden death of the architect, which, according to modern concepts, like the heart attack or stroke. For the first time about the existence of medical treatises in Ancient Egypt it is told in record on the wall of the tomb of Wash-Ptah – the chief architect of the king V dynasty Neferure-RA (XXV century BC). In the same inscription gives the clinical picture of sudden death of the architect, which, according to modern concepts, like the heart attack or stroke.

6 Embalming

7 the Practice of embalming in Ancient Egypt was, apparently, first and primary source of knowledge about the structure of the human body. The practice of embalming in Ancient Egypt was, apparently, first and primary source of knowledge about the structure of the human body. Embalming required and various chemicals, which indirectly contributed to the emergence of ideas about the nature of chemical reactions. Embalming required and various chemicals, which indirectly contributed to the emergence of ideas about the nature of chemical reactions. Moreover, it is assumed that the name “chemistry” comes from the ancient name of Egypt is “Kemet”. Knowledge of the Egyptians in the field of anatomy was significantly higher than the understanding of the structure of the human body in neighbouring countries and, in particular, of Mesopotamia, where the dead bodies were not dissected. Moreover, it is assumed that the name “chemistry” comes from the ancient name of Egypt is “Kemet”. Knowledge of the Egyptians in the field of anatomy was significantly higher than the understanding of the structure of the human body in neighbouring countries and, in particular, of Mesopotamia, where the dead bodies were not dissected.

8 Knowledge E. Smith papyrus the Egyptians knew of major organs: heart, vessels, kidneys, intestines, muscles, etc. to Them belongs the first description of the brain. The Egyptians knew of major organs: heart, vessels, kidneys, intestines, muscles, etc. to Them belongs the first description of the brain. Egyptian doctors associated brain damage with impaired function of other body parts. They were known to have motor paralysis of the extremities in wounds of the head. Egyptian doctors associated brain damage with impaired function of other body parts. They were known to have motor paralysis of the extremities in wounds of the head.

9 Discovered in Thebes in 1872 papyrus Ebers is a medical encyclopedia of the ancient Egyptians. Discovered in Thebes in 1872 papyrus Ebers is a medical encyclopedia of the ancient Egyptians. It contains more than 900 prescription drugs for the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and cardiovascular systems, disorders of hearing and vision, different kinds of infections and worm infestation. It contains more than 900 prescription drugs for the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and cardiovascular systems, disorders of hearing and vision, different kinds of infections and worm infestation.

10 In the papyrus Ebers are the prescription drugs for wrinkles, remove moles, hair colour and eyebrows, enhance hair growth. In the papyrus Ebers are the prescription drugs for wrinkles, remove moles, hair colour and eyebrows, enhance hair growth.

11 training in the healing Transmission of medical knowledge in Ancient Egypt was closely connected with hieroglyphic writing training in special schools at churches. The transmission of medical knowledge in Ancient Egypt was closely connected with hieroglyphic writing training in special schools at churches. In these places reigned, and strict discipline was corporal punishment. In these places reigned, and strict discipline was corporal punishment. In large towns temples of SAIs and Heliopolis existed high schools, or Home life. Along with the medicine they were taught mathematics, architecture, sculpture, astronomy, and the mysteries of magic cults and rituals. In large towns temples of SAIs and Heliopolis existed high schools, or Home life. Along with the medicine they were taught mathematics, architecture, sculpture, astronomy, and the mysteries of magic cults and rituals.

13 Exceptionally popular in Ancient Egypt was the profession of a dentist. This is understandable, since the examination of mummies has shown wide spread the Egyptians severe inflammatory diseases of the periosteum, gums and teeth. Extremely popular in Ancient Egypt was the profession of a dentist. This is understandable, since the examination of mummies has shown wide spread the Egyptians severe inflammatory diseases of the periosteum, gums and teeth. Treatment of dental diseases in Ancient Egypt spent mostly conservative, applying to the aching tooth, or gum paste. In the papyrus Ebers there are 11 formulations of such drugs. In the opinion of the drafters, these pastes should have to restore the health of the oral cavity, strengthen the teeth, inflammation of gums (paradontosis) and toothache.

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